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Classical Archaeology in Context. Berlin: De Gruyter. Hodos, T. Hoffmann, H. An Anthropological Approach to the Study of Greek Vase Painting.
Sotades: Symbols of Immortality on Greek Vases. Oxford: Clarendon. Johnson, M. Archaeological Theory: An Introduction. Langdon, S. Art and Identity in Dark Age Greece.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Leventhal, J. Papadopoulos, eds. Theory and Practice in Mediterranean Archaeology. Los Angeles: Cotsen Institute of Archaeology.
Malkin, I. A Small Greek World: Networks in the Ancient Mediterranean. Constantakopoulou, and K. Panagopoulou, eds.
Greek and Roman Networks in the Mediterranean. London: Routledge. Mee, C. Greek Archaeology: A Thematic Approach. Morris, I.
Burial and Ancient Society. Archaeology as Cultural History: Words and Things in Iron Age Greece. Oxford: Blackwell. Nevett, L. House and Society in the Ancient Greek World.
Nielsen, I. Hellenistic Palaces. Aarhus: Aarhus University Press. Papageorgiou-Venetas, A. Delos: Recherches urbaines sur une ville antique. Munich: Deutscher Kunstverlag.
Pedley, J. Greek Art and Archaeology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Sauer, E. Archaeology and Ancient History: Breaking Down the Boundaries.
Schnapp, A. The Discovery of the Past: The Origins of Archaeology. London: British Museum Press. Schuller, W.
Hoepfner, and E. Schwandner, eds. Demokratie und Architektur: Die hippodamische Stadtebau und die Entstehung der Demokratie. Wohnen in der klassischen Polis.
Berlin: Deutscher Kunstverlag. Small, D. Methods in the Mediterranean: Historical and Archaeological Views on Texts and Archaeology.
Leiden: Brill. Snodgrass, A. The Dark Age of Greece. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Archaic Greece: The Age of Experiment. An Archaeology of Greece: The Present State and Future Scope of a Discipline.
Homer and the Artists. Sourvinou-Inwood, C. Vase Painting, Gender, and Social Identity in Archaic Athens. A History of Greek Art. Steiner, A.
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Whitley, J. Style and Society in Dark Age Greece. The Archaeology of Ancient Greece. The Last Twenty-Five Years David L.
Stone One objective of this book and the conference that stimulated it was to take stock of theoretical developments in the subdiscipline of Greek archaeology.
At the start of the book, it therefore seems appropriate to assess the prevalence of theoretical subjects within current discourse.
I draw conclusions based on an analysis of twenty-five years of scholarship in seven prominent journals. Just how prevalent are theoretical arguments today, and what sort of growth or decline have they seen?
Are there particular journals that tend to publish theoretical papers or not, for whatever reasons? How prominent are theoretical arguments within Greek archaeology, in comparison to other Mediterranean archaeologies and to the larger discipline of archaeology as a whole?
That this inquiry should be necessary is due to the prevailing view that Greek archaeology and classical archaeology as a whole is different from other archaeologies.
A certain amount of time has passed since these arguments were made, and there have been some positive assessments in the interim.
They went from despising it, to listening to it, to being part of it. She argued that the gulf had been bridged as a result of theoretical and methodological changes in Greek archaeology.
But many of these were written at least a decade ago. Methodology I selected seven academic journals for this study. They publish the research of those affiliated with the schools and others, primarily in the subjects of archaeology, history, epigraphy, and art history.
By including research published in English, French, German, and Greek, I am able to take into account several national traditions and to cover a broad spectrum of researchers.
At the same time, since all five journals publish research conducted by established academic organizations within Greece, they share a similar profile and are very comparable.
Data from these five journals provide the basis for measurement against publication trends in larger contexts. For this analysis, I have chosen two journals.
Second, it appeared long enough to demonstrate the existence of trends. The following procedures were used in this analysis. First, the titles and abstracts of each volume of the seven journals were examined.
Statistics for each year and each journal were compiled and then charted to facilitate the analysis table 1. Table 1.
As many authors who have confronted theory in archaeology have observed, it is a difficult concept to define. Nor will it persuade those who regard method and theory as separate spheres.
Articles per year and theoretical articles per year from seven archaeological journals 1. Articles per year and theoretical articles per year from seven archaeological journals To me, it also seemed important that an article should distinguish itself as theoretical by providing explicit and sustained discussion of the interpretative framework employed in reaching conclusions.
Some more specific comment about how I decided that journal articles met these criteria is appropriate. My overriding aim was to be inclusive rather than exclusive.
The abstracts of both articles contained no signs that a theoretical analysis might be found within. The author, P. Nick Kardulias, explained why he employed a formalist perspective to assess the use of stone tools throughout several millennia and within different types of sociopolitical organization.
The latter article examined a singlecolumn capital to determine whether it was fabricated during the Archaic or Roman period. The author, Christopher Pfaff, utilized stylistic analysis to date the capital to the Roman period but did not explore the wider significance of the refurbishment of the Argive Heraion from the perspective of imperialism, social memory, or another theoretical vantage point.
Many articles posed several questions, of course, and I consulted these articles in their entirety to determine whether the author s had made an explicit and sustained discussion of an interpretative framework.
Articles per year and theoretical articles per year from seven archaeological journals Fig. Articles per year and theoretical articles per year from seven archaeological journals The results from each journal are presented below in a series of charts, showing numbers of articles of various types and the relevant percentages.
I considered field reports and syntheses, the two main types of articles published by the five Greek archaeology journals,42 as equally likely to be theoretical.
Perhaps not surprisingly, none of these reports qualified as theoretical articles, yet all were counted toward the number of articles published in the journal.
Both the BSA and Hesperia have a broader conception of field reports; in those journals, one sometimes finds more reflexive, abstract articles concerned with the implications of findings for interpretative issues in archaeology.
For example, BSA and Hesperia publications of projects at Karphi and especially Azoria regularly discussed theoretical arguments, such as those regarding state formation.
As readers of these journals know, they include research ranging from prehistory to the modern era. I considered all material earlier than these chronological parameters as belonging to a single period.
I defined a third period for later material. The journal contained three theoretical articles in the twenty-five years considered, spread evenly throughout the period fig.
These three articles all concerned prehistory fig. On five occasions, the journal published multiple volumes as a single issue; thus the numbers were averaged over a multiyear span as necessary.
The frequency of theoretical articles may be said to have increased in recent years, as three appeared in the last five volumes.
Thirteen theoretical articles in total were counted; more recent volumes tended to have more of these, especially if the percentage, rather than number of articles, is considered fig.
Forty-two articles were counted in total, and there were only six years in which no articles deemed theoretical appeared.
Hesperia The journal of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens also published a large number of theoretical articles forty-four in the twenty-five years considered.
These cluster in the last dozen volumes, with only three present prior to Percentage of Theoretical Articles There was a great variety in the annual percentage of theoretical articles within Greek archaeology journals.
In the BSA and Hesperia, the numbers were much higher: 9. Throughout the twenty-five years considered, the percentage of theoretical articles published in the five journals combined has risen substantially fig.
Within the first five years of that time span, theoretical articles accounted for 2. Chronological Periods All five of the Greek archaeology journals cover the prehistoric to modern periods.
To assess which periods theoretical articles covered, I created three chronological divisions and an additional category for multiperiod articles.
The largest number of theoretical articles considered the prehistoric period fifty-five, Percentage of theoretical articles published in five Greek archaeology journals, during the twenty-five years consulted.
Year 1 represents the first volume of each journal, year 2 the second, and so on. Percentage of articles discussing different periods in five Greek archaeology journals Three comments may be made about these figures.
I did not investigate the number and percentage of other articles of each period that were published during the twenty-five years considered, so I cannot make a statistical comparison of the relative frequency of theoretical articles to total articles from each period.
John Cherry and Lauren Talalay considered publication trends in Greek archaeology journals a few years ago and identified During approximately the same period, they found that the percentages in other journals concerning prehistory were quite different: Athenische Mitteilungen 8.
A second observation is that the four foreign schools whose journals are included in this study have emphasized research on these periods very differently throughout their histories.
One might surmise that the differences in emphasis among these schools should, to a certain extent, be reflected in the research published in their journals.
Thus, the patterns in fig. For example, the excavations at Knossos by the British School at Athens spawned nine prehistoric articles in the BSA during the twenty-five years considered.
Some of these articles contained theoretical discussions in the context of reporting new discoveries,50 while others are studies revisiting material previously published by the projects.
Results: Theory in Comparative Contexts American Journal of Archaeology The AJA offers a good comparison to the five Greek archaeology journals; its articles consist mainly of field reports and syntheses, although its geographical focus extends throughout the whole of Europe and the Mediterranean.
The data I gathered from the AJA indicate clear differences in treatment of archaeological theory.
Theoretical articles were more common in the AJA than in any of the five Greek archaeology journals; Nevertheless, from the beginning of this period, theoretical articles were more prevalent in the AJA than in Greek archaeology journals.
In the AJA, theoretical articles were distributed by geographical region as follows: Central Asia, four articles, 4 percent; Egypt, two, 2 percent; Greece, forty-eight, 49 percent;53 the Near East, twenty, 20 percent;54 and the Roman Empire, seventeen, 17 percent.
It was higher than all the other geographical regions and even higher than the number of articles found in the BSA forty-two or Hesperia forty-four during the twenty-five years.
It is clear that many Greek archaeologists publish theoretical articles in the AJA. Percentage of theoretical articles in AJA, during the twenty-five years consulted.
World Archaeology Each issue of the final journal under consideration here is devoted to a particular theme or debate, not simply the latest fieldwork or synthesis.
This arrangement makes WorldArch conceptually different from the other journals. In practice, however, many WorldArch articles present recent fieldwork or syntheses on the topic in question, and the journal formats are not incomparable.
In my analysis, The variation in numbers may best be explained by the format of WorldArch. Many topical issues were of a theoretical nature e. Topics in Greek archaeology figured regularly among submissions to WorldArch.
Conclusions This examination has surveyed five Greek archaeology journals and two journals with wider contexts, to assess the place of theory in Greek archaeology, particularly from the Early Iron Age to the Hellenistic period.
All of the journals were well established and were regarded as prestigious and influential. Four were published primarily in English and one each in French, German, and Greek, enabling a variety of national traditions and perspectives to be considered.
Archaeological theory made a solid contribution to Greek archaeology during the twenty-five years considered, particularly among English-speaking practitioners, who have used it in about 10 percent of articles published in major journals in the field.
Among the journals considered, there was a noticeably smaller amount of archaeological theory in German, French, and Greek scholarship.
Yet, in the majority of instances, the percentage of theoretical articles has grown considerably, and it is much more common for Greek archaeologists to discuss theory now than at any point in the last generation.
Number of theoretical articles by period in seven archaeology journals during the twenty-five years consulted.
Archaeological theory was most prevalent among Greek prehistorians during the twenty-five years considered; just over half of all theoretical articles in Greek archaeology journals belonged to this period.
Morris, among others, has noted that the theoretical work in Greek archaeology first appeared among prehistorians.
Prehistory consistently accounted for the highest number of articles per year in fig. For prehistory, it is possible to detect a significant uptick in the production of theoretical articles in the late s around ten years into the sequence in fig.
More than one-third of all the theoretical articles in Greek archaeology journals discussed these periods, and the numbers were higher in journals covering broader contexts.
The rise of theoretical articles on the Early Iron Age to Hellenistic periods postdates those concerning Prehistory; a substantial increase is noticeable in the second half of the first decade of the s around twenty years into the sequence in fig.
Tracking theoretical trends with the methodology I have described has thus revealed a slightly different picture than that on the radar elsewhere.
A far smaller percentage of articles on the Roman to modern periods in any publication utilized archaeological theory.
It is harder to assess the numbers in this case, however, since no record was kept of the percentage of total articles on these periods.
The general impression gained from this study is that the vast majority of publications in Greek archaeology consider earlier periods.
The low percentages may simply reflect a smaller overall number of articles, but the subject deserves further investigation. Where is theory in Greek archaeology today?
Theory may not now be at the center of disciplinary debates in Greek archaeology, but the growing popularity of research discussing theoretical topics suggests that interest is on the rise.
The subject has become more theoretical at a rapid rate, first in Prehistory, and lately in the Early Iron Age to Hellenistic periods.
Future Paths The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the place of theory in Greek archaeological journals. Future analyses on the prevalence of the topic could be undertaken in different ways, and some discussion of alternative structures seems relevant.
Additional journals focusing on the Mediterranean or the world could be included e. Similarly, journals that specialize in the publication of theoretical articles e.
The goals of comparison would necessarily vary, depending on the journals chosen. Given that there was a higher percentage of more theoretical articles on Greece published in AJA and WorldArch than in Greek archaeology journals, it would be interesting to see what work Greek archaeologists have published in other wider contexts.
Newer journals, in particular, tend to publish articles that do not always appear in the more mainstream venues that I considered. It would also be valuable to compare theory in Greek archaeology to that in Roman archaeology, and a study of Italian journals as well as those of foreign schools in Rome could parallel the route taken in my analysis.
Books arguably provide a better means of considering topics like archaeological theory, because topics may be explored in books at greater length and in greater depth.
To consult the many published books making use of Greek archaeological theory would, however, demand a very well-stocked library, which may not be easy to procure.
Journal articles, however, are usually more substantial than conference presentations, and I did not think I could apply my definition of a theoretical article to the sort of brief discussion found in a conference paper title or abstract.
A different sort of study might have surveyed the opinions of authors publishing in these seven journals as well as others in the field.
It would be useful to ask which journals Greek archaeologists regard as good places to present theoretical arguments, and which ones are better for empirical studies.
How do their perceptions influence where they choose to publish, and the way they frame their arguments?
Do they feel that a specific journal editor, editorial board, or editorial policy statement influences the decision to include or exclude theory?
My evaluation did not focus on the theories employed in the articles e. Charting the prevalence of brands of theory e. The data I have gathered would lend themselves to this sort of analysis, but I did not pursue this avenue, as it would have required more space than was available here.
Some topics certainly stand out as particularly prominent foci of theoretical work during the last twenty-five years, such as tomb cult, feasting, and identity, but there was also a wide variety of subjects considered, including gender, postcolonialism, agency, state formation, war, and cultural biography.
It is not possible to treat the subject briefly here, but perhaps it will be possible to revisit it on another occasion. A longitudinal analysis of theoretical topics at the first seven Roman Archaeology Conferences has shown the rapidity with which approaches are changing in a closely parallel field.
It would also not be surprising if Greek archaeologists have explored different theoretical issues, suited to the historical contexts and the nature of the material remains that they have encountered.
This would be worth discovering. References Andreou, S. The Landscapes of Modern Greek Aegean Prehistory. In Prehistorians Round the Pond: Reflections on Aegean Prehistory as a Discipline, edited by J.
Cherry, D. Margomenou and L. Ann Arbor: Kelsey Museum of Archaeology, University of Michigan. Archaeology: A Very Short Introduction.
Margomenou, and L. Conkey, M. Cowgill, G. Cullen, T. Dyson, S. Giddens, A. The Constitution of Society: Outline of the Theory of Structuration.
Cambridge: Polity. Mook, C. Scarry, L. Snyder, and W. Mook, R. Fitzsimons, C. Scarry, and L. Mook, T. Carter, and L.
Kardulias, P. Knappett, C. Lespez, L. Mattingly, D. Hales and T. Classical Archaeology. In A Companion to Archaeology, edited by J.
Norman, N. Letter from the editor in chief. American Journal of Archaeology 1. Osborne, R. Pitts, M. The Utility of Identity in Roman Archaeology.
Platt, C. Editorial note. World Archaeology 1 1 : iv. Preston, L. Renfrew, C. The Emergence of Civilisation: the Cyclades and the Aegean in the Third Millennium B.
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